Meeting the Standards of Normal Science in Health Outcomes and Market ccess
Meeting the Standards of Normal Science in Health Outcomes and Market ccess
Meeting the Standards of Normal Science in Health Outcomes and Market Access for Pharmaceutical Products and Devices
Meeting the Standards of Normal Science in Health Outcomes and Market Access for Pharmaceutical Products and Devices

Maimon Research LLC: A New Research Agenda in Health Technology Assessment



Supporting the credibility, evaluation and replication of value claims for clinical and cost-effectiveness in pharmaceutical products and devices

Maimon Research LLC is a long established boutique consulting company specializing in health technology assessment, together with advising and implementing market access strategies to support pharmaceutical products and devices over their life cycle.


The focus of Maimon Research is on developing claims for pharmaceutical products and devices that are credible, evaluable and replicable.


This sets Maimon Research apart from other health technology assessment consultants. Unlike competitors, Maimon Research offers a unique and methodologically acceptable approach to the validation and replication of health technology claims.

This approach puts to one side the modeling of non-testable claims based on the construction of reference case lifetime imaginary worlds which, unfortunately, have come to dominate the health technology assessment literature over the past 30 years, in favor of credible claims which meet the standards of normal science. This technology assessment ‘meme’ is an intellectual and analytical dead end. It has to be abandoned in favor of value assessment frameworks that make sense for formulary committees.

The purpose of this website is to introduce prospective clients to the case made in a number of commentaries authored by Dr Paul C Langley, Director, Maimon Research for the standards required to make product claims that meet those of normal science. Links are provided to over 40 commentaries which have evaluated ICER claims as well as those focused on the development of evidence platforms and patient centric outcomes measures.

Normal science is not new ......


 "No human investigation can be termed true   science if it is not capable of mathematical demonstration. If you say that the sciences which begin and end in the mind are true, then it is not to be conceded, but is denied for many reasons, and chiefly the fact that the test of experience is absent from these exercises of the mind, and without it nothing can be certain" (Leonardo da Vinci  d. 1519)

Latest News


October 12: Maimon publishes Version 3.0 of the Minnesota formulary guidelines

Maimon publishes Working Paper No. 22 that demolishes the ICER pricing claims for Remdesivir in Covid 19


Recent Publications


Langley P. The National Pharmaceutical Council: Endorsing the construction of imaginary worlds in health technology assessment. Pharmacy. 2020;8(119);doi:10.3390/pharmacy8030119


Langley P. More Unnecessary Imaginary Worlds – Part 3: Cystic Fibrosis and the Institute for Clinical and Economic Review’s Draft Evidence Report. Inov Pharm;11(1):No. 15


Langley PC. Nonsense on Stilts – Part 1: The ICER 2020-2023 Value Assessment Framework for Constructing Imaginary Worlds. InovPharm. 2020;11(1):No. 12


Langley PC. More Unnecessary Imaginary Worlds – Part 2: The ICER Evidence Report on Modeling Oral Semaglutide for Type 2 Diabetes. Inov Pharm. 2020;11(1):No 10


Langley PC.  More Unnecessary Imaginary Worlds - Part 1: The Institute for Clinical and Economic Review’s Evidence Report on Janus Kinase (JAK) Inhibitors in Rheumatoid Arthritis.  Inov Pharm . 2020;11(1):No 2


Langley PC. Yet another Ersatz World: The ICER Final Evidence Report for Additive Cardiovascular Therapies. Inov Pharm.2019;10(4); No 22.


Langley PC. ICER, ISPOR and QALYs: A Tale of Imaginary Worlds, Inov Pharm. 2019:10(4): No. 10



Maimon Research services:


•developing value claims that are credible, evaluable and replicable through supporting health technology assessments that meet standards of normal science

•supporting payers in developing standards for formulary evaluation that are meaningful and meet the standards of normal science

•developing formulary submission protocols for comparative claims validation

•ensuring claims reflect the needs of patients through outcomes instruments that are patient centric

•supporting the rejection of invalid claims, such as lifetime cost per QALY models, by formulary committees

•seminars and training programs to support the new research agenda




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