Dr Paul Langley is a professional economist. His undergraduate training was in the UK, University of Hull (B.Sc [Econ])
with postgraduate training in Canada at Carleton University (M.A.) and Queen’s University (Ph.D.). Dr Langley has taught in the UK (University of Lancaster) and in Australia (La Trobe University)
with visiting appointments at Carleton University, the University of Ohio and the University of California (Irvine). Although initially focusing on labor economics, Dr Langley moved into health
economics – specifically the economic evaluation of pharmaceutical products - in the early 1990s. The impetus for this move was the decision, in 1992, by the Australian Department of Health to
require companies seeking formulary approval for new products to make a cost-effectiveness case in order to justify the unit cost of the product and its formulary
Following this decision by the Australian authorities, a number of other countries (Canada, New Zealand) began developing
their own formulary submission guidelines and evidentiary and analytical standards for economic evaluations emerged. Although guidelines had not yet been introduced within the United States, there
was considerable interest among both drug manufacturers and academic health economics groups in the emergence of guidelines requirements and in the need to improve understanding of the new evaluative
techniques as they applied to a range of new products and disease areas. As a result of his early work in Australia, Dr Langley was appointed Associate Professor at the University of Arizona (College
of Pharmacy; Center for Pharmaceutical Economics) in July 1994 and moved from Australia to the United States. Following a successful three years at Arizona (where Dr Langley authored some 20
publications in this area and managed a number of significant research projects), Dr Langley was appointed Professor at the University of Colorado (School of Pharmacy, University of Colorado Health
Sciences Center) in July 1997. One of Dr Langley’s tasks at Colorado was to establish a Center for Pharmaceutical Economics. Following a successful two years at Colorado, Dr Langley moved to 3M
Pharmaceuticals in September 1999 (through July 2005) as US and International Manager, Health Economics with worldwide responsibilities for economic evaluations as they apply to drug development,
reimbursement and post-market entry support.
Since leaving 3M pharmaceuticals, Dr Langley has managed his consulting company, Maimon Research LLC, undertaking a
number of consultancy projects in major disease areas as well as advising on document management and minimum evidentiary standards for drug development decisions and
Dr Langley has published in the area of population health, focusing on the societal burden of pain and pain
co-morbidities. Three aspects of disease burden are considered: (i) health related quality of life and self-reported health status; (ii) employment status, absenteeism and presenteeism; and (iii)
healthcare resource utilization. Ten papers have been published covering the UK, France, Germany, Spain, Italy and China.
In mid-2015 Dr Langley was invited to organize a special supplement for
the Journal of Medical
Economics on ‘The status of modeled claims in pharmacoeconomics’. These were published in
November 2015. The papers focus on the credibility of cost-outcomes claims and the importance of developing testable claims to support formulary submissions and ongoing disease area and therapeutic
This supplement was followed by a number of peer reviewed commentaries in the University of
Minnesota Journal INNOVATIONS in
Pharmacy, starting in July 2016, on evidentiary standards in formulary submissions and claims for
cost-effectiveness. To date (January 2020) over 50 have been published.
The focus of these recent papers and commentaries has been to point out that the standards accepted by groups such as
NICE in the UK and ICER in the US do not meet those of normal science. Their acceptance of a reference case methodology and its emphasis on cost per QALY models to drive formulary decisions means
that claims made for cost effectiveness (and in the case of ICER – a NICE-lite methodology- pronouncements on ‘appropriate’ pricing) does not meet scientific standards. More to the point, it is
always possible to ‘reverse engineer’ a reference case model to produce entirely different claims for cost-effectiveness and pricing. The common finding was few cost-effectiveness submissions (and
papers published in leading journals) met the standards of normal science for evaluable claims.
Most recently Dr Langley has been focused on the treatment of chronic pain and the evidence base requirements to evaluate
patient response, including opioid abuse in treatment practice. This has led to consideration of the role of chronic pain management registries to track response to therapy as well as, in a broader
context, the role of registries in providing feedback in RCT-based and modeled claims to formulary committees. In addition registries have been proposed in the area of behavioral health and medical
Most recently, Dr Langley has focused on the need for value assessment frameworks to support formulary sub missions. He
continues to counter ICER evidence reports and the imaginary world evaluation meme of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Dr Langley is currently Director, Maimon Research LLC, a health economics consulting and research company based in
Tucson, AZ. Dr. Langley is also an Adjunct Professor, Graduate School, College of Pharmacy, University of Minnesota. Since August 2019, Dr. Langley has served as a consultant and Advisory
Board Member for the Patient Access and Affordability Project, a program of Patients Rising.